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Battery History

Before commercial introduction

Varta lithium-ion battery, Museum Autovision, Altlussheim, Germany

Lithium batteries were first proposed by M. S. Whittingham, now at Binghamton University, while working for Exxon in the 1970s. Whittingham used titanium sulfide and lithium metal as the electrodes.Reversible intercalation in graphite and intercalation into cathodic oxides was discovered in the 1970s by J. O. Besenhard at

TU Munich. Besenhard proposed its application in lithium cells.Electrolyte decomposition and solvent co-intercalation into graphite were severe early drawbacks for battery life.

Primary lithium batteries with metallic lithium negative electrodes pose safety issues. As a result, lithium-ion batteries

were developed in which both electrodes are made of a material containing lithium ions.

At Oxford University, England, in 1979, John Goodenough and Koichi Mizushima demonstrated a rechargeable cell with voltage in the 4 V range using lithium cobalt oxide as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode.This innovation provided the positive electrode material that made LIBs possible. LiCoO2 is a stable positive electrode material which acts as a donor of lithium ions, which means that it can be used with a negative electrode material other than lithium metal. By enabling the use of stable and easy-to-handle negative electrode materials, LiCoO2 opened a whole new range of possibilities for novel rechargeable battery systems.

In 1977, Samar Basu demonstrated electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite at the University of Pennsylvania. This led to the development of a workable lithium intercalated graphite electrode at Bell Labs to provide an alternative to the lithium metal electrode battery.

In 1980, Rachid Yazami demonstrated the reversible electrochemical intercalation of lithium in graphite.The organic

electrolytes available at the time would decompose during charging with a graphite negative electrode, slowing the

development of a rechargeable lithium/graphite battery. Yazami used a solid electrolyte to demonstrate that lithium could be reversibly intercalated in graphite through an electrochemical mechanism. The graphite electrode discovered by Yazami is currently the most commonly used electrode in commercial lithium ion batteries.

In 1983, Michael M. Thackeray, Goodenough, and coworkers identified manganese spinel as a positive electrode material. Spinel showed great promise, given its low-cost, good electronic and lithium ion conductivity, and three-dimensional structure, which gives it good structural stability. Although pure manganese spinel fades with cycling, this can be overcome with chemical modification of the material.As of 2013 manganese spinel was used in commercial cells.

In 1985, Akira Yoshino assembled a prototype cell using carbonaceous material into which lithium ions could be inserted as one electrode, and lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), which is stable in air, as the other. By using materials without metallic lithium, safety was dramatically improved. LiCoO2 enabled industrial-scale production and represents the birth of the current lithium-ion battery.In 1989, Goodenough and Arumugam Manthiram of the University of Texas at Austin showed that positive electrodes containing polyanions, e.g., sulfates, produce higher voltages than oxides due to the induction effect of the polyanion.

From commercial introduction,The performance and capacity of lithium-ion batteries increases as development progresses.

In 1991 Sony and Asahi Kasei released the first commercial lithium-ion battery.

In 1996 Goodenough, Akshaya Padhi and coworkers proposed lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and other phospho-olivines (lithium metal phosphates with the same structure as mineral olivine) as positive electrode materials.

In 2002 Yet-Ming Chiang and his group at MIT showed a substantial improvement in the performance of lithium batteries by boosting the material's conductivity by doping it[citation needed] with aluminium, niobium and zirconium. The exact mechanism causing the increase became the subject of widespread debate.

In 2004 Chiang again increased performance by utilizing iron phosphate particles of less than 100 nanometers in diameter. This decreased particle density almost one hundredfold, increased the positive electrode's surface area and improved capacity and performance. Commercialization led to a rapid growth in the market for higher capacity LIBs, as well as a patent infringement battle between Chiang and Goodenough.

As of 2011, lithium-ion batteries accounted for 66% of all portable secondary (i.e., rechargeable) battery sales in Japan.In June 2012 John Goodenough, Rachid Yazami and Akira Yoshino received the 2012 IEEE Medal for Environmental and Safety Technologies for developing the lithium ion battery.

By 2013 the lithium rechargeable battery had progressed to a lithium vanadium phosphate battery to increase energy efficiency in the forward and reverse reaction.

In 2014 batteries started to have 20% higher capacity than those previously available, with a silicon anode rather than graphite anode, were being delivered to smartphone manufacturers.

About basic knowledge battery you should know.
1,Visual inspection
There shall be no such defect as scratch, flaw, crack, and leakage, which may adversely affect commercial value of the cell.
2.1 The Li-ion battery pack should be stored in a cool, dry and well-ventilated area, and should be far from the fire and the high temperature.
2.2 The battery should store in the product specification book stipulation temperature range, the best storage temp. is 0 to 25℃. The best humidity is 60±25%.
2.3 The battery should be stored within room temperature, and charged to 40%~60% electric quantity. In order to avoid over-discharge, we suggest charge the batteries every three months. If stored over one year, we suggest activate the battery as per standard charge-discharge method. 
3.1 Do not mix the battery products with other cargos.
3.2 Do not immerse the battery products in water or allow it to get wet.
3.3 Do not over 7 layers staking and upside-down.
3.4 The highest temperature in transportation is lower than 65℃.
4. Use Attentions
To ensure proper use of the battery please read the manual carefully before using it.
4.1 Warnings 
4.2 Do not expose to, dispose of the battery in fire.
4.3 Do not put the battery in a charger or equipment with wrong terminals connected.
4.4 Avoid shorting the battery.
4.5 Avoid excessive physical shock or vibration.
4.6 Do not disassemble or deform the battery.
4.7 Do not immerse in water.
4.8 Do not use the battery mixed with other different type or model batteries.
4.9 Keep out of the reach of children.

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